Who are the targets?

Although governments are responsible for creating immigration policy, they are outsourcing the implementation of most of this violence to the private sector. Thus the border regime relies on a vast network of hundreds of companies, many of which are household names.  These firms provide and develop the technologies and labour required to make the hostile environment a reality, as well as playing a significant role in promoting these policies and the alarmist, racist, xenophobic narratives which feed into them. Collectively, these firms make up the Border Industry,  which is the target of our campaign.

The categorization of the border industry underpinning the People & Planet Border Divestment List (BDL) is mainly based on the Transnational Institute’s Financing Border Wars Report (Akkerman 2021).

We differentiate between 5 categories of reprehensible corporate activities that companies engage in:

1) Border Security and Control - The technological and physical infrastructure of security and surveillance at borders, as well as the provision of the personnel who staff them.

 2) Border Surveillance - The use of a broad range of (newer) technologies to record, control and prevent the movement of people. These include biometric databases and case management tools, biometric collecting and matching technologies, cloud infrastructure, data brokering, as well as phone and social media tracking. 

3) Deportation - The (usually involuntary) removal of people from a country, often by force. 

4) Detention - The deprivation of liberty for migration-related reasons.

5) Advisory and Audit Services - The provision of support services which are invaluable to the operation of the above activities.

You can find more information about the violence inherent in each of these sectors within our Divest Borders Action Guide. 

Our Action Guide

Which companies?

Our Border Divestment List indicates the companies complicit in border violence from whom all universities must divest. 

Full Methodology          Download List

Company Name

Country

Border Industry Classification

Market Cap USD (BILLIONS) [16/11/21]

ACADIA HEALTHCARE 

UNITED STATES DETENTION 5.838
ACCENTURE IRELAND BORDER SURVEILLANCE, ADVISORY AND AUDIT 232.728
AIR FRANCE-KLM FRANCE DEPORTATION 3.072
AIRBUS NETHERLANDS BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 102.536
AIR TRANSPORT SERVICES GROUP  UNITED STATES BORDER SURVEILLANCE 2.035
AMAZON UNITED STATES BORDER SURVEILLANCE 1,798.000
ARAMARK UNITED STATES DETENTION 9.692
ASELSAN ELEKTRONIK SANAYI TURKEY BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL, BORDER SURVEILLANCE  4.026
ATOS FRANCE BORDER SURVEILLANCE 5.256
AUSTAL AUSTRALIA BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 0.507
BABCOCK INTL GROUP UNITED KINGDOM BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL, BORDER SURVEILLANCE 2.176
BAE SYSTEMS UNITED KINGDOM BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL, BORDER SURVEILLANCE

24.243

BOEING UNITED STATES BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 136.987
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON HOLDING UNITED STATES BORDER SURVEILLANCE 11.921
CACI INTERNATIONAL UNITED STATES BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL, BORDER SURVEILLANCE 6.577
CAPGEMINI FRANCE BORDER SURVEILLANCE 40.838
CELLEBRITE ISRAEL BORDER SURVEILLANCE 1.863
COGNIZANT TECH SOLUTIONS UNITED STATES BORDER SURVEILLANCE 43.060
CORECIVIC UNITED STATES DETENTION 1.377
EASYJET UNITED KINGDOM DEPORTATION 6.005
ELBIT SYSTEMS ISRAEL BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL, BORDER SURVEILLANCE 675.611
EXPERIAN IRELAND ADVISORY AND AUDIT 43.299
FINCANTIERI ITALY BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 1.324
FUJITSU  JAPAN BORDER SURVEILLANCE 36.330
GB GROUP UNITED KINGDOM BORDER SURVEILLANCE 2.281
GENERAL DYNAMICS UNITED STATES BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL, BORDER SURVEILLANCE 56.143
GEO GROUP UNITED STATES DETENTION 1.178
GRANITE CONSTRUCTION UNITED STATES BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 1.926
HENSOLDT AG GERMANY  BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 1.643
HEWLETT PACKARD ENTERPRISE UNITED STATES BORDER SURVEILLANCE 19.228
INDRA SISTEMAS SPAIN BORDER SURVEILLANCE 2.204
IBM UNITED STATES BORDER SURVEILLANCE 106.546
INTL CONSOLIDATED AIRLINE DI (PARENT COMPANY OF BRITISH AIRWAYS) SPAIN DEPORTATION 10.803
KBR UNITED STATES BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 6.316
L3HARRIS TECHNOLOGIES UNITED STATES BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 43.411
LEIDOS HOLDINGS UNITED STATES BORDER SURVEILLANCE 13.231
LEONARDO ITALY BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL, BORDER SURVEILLANCE 4.295
LOCKHEED MARTIN UNITED STATES BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 94.021
MEARS UNITED KINGDOM DETENTION 0.281
MICROSOFT UNITED STATES BORDER SURVEILLANCE 2,523.000
MITIE GROUP UNITED KINGDOM DETENTION, DEPORTATION 1.346
MOTOROLA SOLUTIONS UNITED STATES BORDER SURVEILLANCE 42.435
NEC JAPAN BORDER SURVEILLANCE 13.329
NORTHROP GRUMMAN UNITED STATES BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL, BORDER SURVEILLANCE 56.642
OSI SYSTEMS UNITED STATES BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 1.730
PALANTIR TECHNOLOGIES UNITED STATES BORDER SURVEILLANCE 46.933
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGIES UNITED STATES BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 134.664
RHEINMETALL GERMANY  BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 4.361
SAAB SWEDEN BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 3.777
SCIENCE APPLICATIONS UNITED STATES BORDER SURVEILLANCE 5.122
SERCO GROUP UNITED KINGDOM DETENTION 2.226
SMITHS GROUP UNITED KINGDOM BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL, BORDER SURVEILLANCE 7.928
SOPRA STERIA FRANCE BORDER SURVEILLANCE 3.976
TARGET HOSPITALITY UNITED STATES DETENTION 488.774
TELEDYNE TECHNOLOGIES UNITED STATES BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL, BORDER SURVEILLANCE 20.707
TEXTRON UNITED STATES BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL 16.878
THALES FRANCE BORDER SECURITY AND CONTROL, BORDER SURVEILLANCE 19.743
THOMSON REUTERS CANADA BORDER SURVEILLANCE 58.589
TUI AG GERMANY DEPORTATION 4.949
TURK HAVA YOLLARI AO (PARENT COMPANY OF TURKISH AIRLINES) TURKEY DEPORTATION 2.378

 

Methodology

Company identification

To identify companies with links to the border industry, we mainly consulted existing reports and research output about different segments or geographies of the border industry. Those included the reports of the Transnational Institute (TNI), the AFSC Investigate Border Research database and Divest For Immigrant Justice List, and a report from Privacy International. We also did desk research to identify additional companies mostly with links to the UK and EU border regimes.


The geographical focus of the BDL is on the UK, US-Mexican border (mainly based on research by AFSC and TNI) and Europe (incl. the Mediterranean Sea). 

Company assessment

While there are fossil fuel companies that can relatively easy be identified (and included on the fossil fuel divestment list) by looking at how much the business model relies on the production and sales of crude oil, natural gas, and thermal coal (or the size of yet unproduced fossil fuel reserves), there are no ‘border companies’.


That is why the decision over a company's inclusion in the People & Planet Border Divestment List (BDL) was made based on an evaluation of six quantitative and qualitative criteria (below) that seek to capture the extent to which a company is involved in the border industry. Our aim is to identify publicly listed companies which engage in corporate activities that play a significant role in the construction and/or operation of border infrastructures (physical and digital). 


We evaluate companies based on all criteria for which information is publicly available. Our two key criteria are if there is quantitative or qualitative evidence that the company in question engages in corporate activities that characterize the border industry. We used the other four criteria to evaluate

a) the extent to which the corporate activities related to the border industry are important (that is, financially material or strategic) to the company itself

 b) the extent to which the corporate activities related to the border industry are important for the public authority purchasing goods/services.


By taking this lens, we included companies on the BDL for which corporate activities related to the border industry only account for a small share of their operations (or revenues) but whose services are vital for the construction and/or operation of border infrastructures. 

Company inclusion criteria

We made the final decision which companies to include in the BDL on a company-by-company basis after carefully considering the assessments of all six criteria outlined below. 


Quantitative criteria    
1. Financial materiality: is the reprehensible corporate activity financially material for the company in question? (>10% of total annual revenues)
2. Is it possible to quantify monetary contract values related to the reprehensible corporate activity?


Qualitative criteria    
3. Is there qualitative evidence of reprehensible corporate activities?
4. Is the corporate activity part of a separate business unit, product group, and/or of strategic importance for the company in question? 
5. Is the company in question directly or indirectly involved in active lobbying efforts to influence policy making in favor of the border industry in general and/or the specific reprehensible corporate activity in question?
6. To what extent are government authorities dependent on purchasing the corporative activity from the company in question? 


Limitations

We acknowledge that the resulting list of companies is not comprehensive and do not claim that it captures all companies engaged in activities related to the border industry in the geographies outlined above. Firstly, our BDL doesn’t include any companies which are not publicly traded, as these companies cannot be invested in. While there are a number of these companies who are key players in the industry, they are not within reach of this campaign. Additionally, this version of the BDL does not include all airline companies who are complicit in deportation, but currently only those who are the most active in this area. Further, the list also does not include banks and institutional investors that provide debt finance (e.g., loans or bonds) to companies listed on the BDL and thus provide the latter with crucial financial sources to advance border infrastructure projects. We aim to include both groups of companies in the next iteration of the list.

Full Methodology           Download List